affirmative action
a.    Bakke:  Powell
i.    race cannot be determinative; no quotas
ii.    but race can be a plus factor
iii.    (Brennan dissent): as long as it is to remedy effect of past discrimination
b.    Hopwood  5th Circuit only!
i.    Bakke not controlling b/c no majority opinion
ii.    UT didn’t show any past discrim at UT law school (only in Texas)
iii.    can use other factors like economic b/g, etc, but not race
c.    note:  title 6 applies to Baylor, but not 14th am EP
d.    Adarand  (gov’t contracts to GC’s with disadvantages subs); held Constitutional b/c remedying effects of past discrim & is narrowly tailored.