1.    Overseen by Physician, and most often, they carry out the orders of the physician.
a)    “Physician Extenders”: purpose is to augment therapeutic objectives of physicians.
(1)    Work as an intermediary between the physician and patient.
2.    Relationship between AHP and physician.  If a legal relationship, analyze according to agency law with regard to vicarious liability, etc.
3.    All have education requirements and licensing requirements, but cannot function independently as physicians.
4.    Examples of Physician Extenders:
a)    Nurse – can be employee of hospital of sole physician
(1)    RN
(2)    Advanced Practice Nurse: example would be a nurse anesthetist.  Can under certain situations, can write prescriptions.
b)    EMT – ambulance…
c)    Physician Assistant
d)    Surgical Assistant – non nurse, non physician who assists physician in operating room.  Usually hired by physician.
(1)    Both physician assistant and surgical assistant may be employed by hospital of physician.
(2)    Both have their own licensing and examining board.  Depending on the state, may bill separate from the physician.
e)    Technicians – either x-ray or surgical technicians; laboratory technician, radiology technician, etc.  Have their own licensing boards.
f)    Therapists – physical, speech, and occupational therapists.
(1)    Usually operate within hospital, but some operate outside.  But they have to work on the basis of prescription and oversight of a physician.
(2)    Worker’s Comp: doctor has to determine if patient can go back to work.  Have an occupational therapist perform the tests to see if they can return to work.
(3)    Speech therapist helps with speech disorders or with patients after stroke, etc.
g)    Patient Services Specialist – health educators in a hospital, dietician, medical records, etc.
(1)    Work as employees of physician.
(2)    Vast majority have their own individual licenses.