Muskrat v. United States (1911)
Parties: Muskrat questions the validity of an act passed by congress assigning land that was granted to the Cherokee Indians in a previous statute to three other tribes.

Holding: the ? has not asserted any actual private parties have or will suffer injury in fact but has simply asked the court to decide if the statute is valid and constitutional. This question is one that should be answered by congress not the court. Although, the US is named as a ? in this action, it has no interest adverse to the claimants.
b. Ripeness: TOO EARLY
Rule: a party must present an actual case that warrants adjudication.  A hypothetical threat is not enough. A case will be regarded as not yet ripe (and therefore not yet justiciable) if it has not yet become sufficiently concrete to be worthy of adjudication.