Johnson (1989):  This case deals with flag desecration and whether
or not this symbolic expression fell under the protection of the
First Am.  The Texas “flag burning” statute in Johnson made it a
crime to “intentionally or knowingly desecrate…a state or national
flag.”  “Desecrate” was defined to mean “deface, damage, or otherwise
physically mistreat in a way that the actor knows will seriously
offend one or more persons likely to observe or discover his action.”
D (Johnson) participated in a political demonstration outside the
1984 Republican National Convention in Dallas. At the end of the
demonstration, he unfurled an American flag, doused it with kerosene,
and set it on fire. While the flag burned, the protestors chanted,
“America, the red, white, and blue, we spit on you.” Johnson was
charged with violating the desecration statute; at his trial, several
witnesses testified that they had been seriously offended by the flag
burning, and he was convicted.  Did the Texas “flag burning” statute
violate the First Am.?