1. can sue to enjoin state officials from violating federal law
(becomes actor conduct, not state conduct – fiction) Ex Parte Young
2. can sue state officials for money damages, as long as state
won’t have to pay any of it
3. 11th does bar suits v. state for officials violating state
4. the federal gov’t can sue state; states can sue states
5. can sue cities, municipalities, political subdivisions
(school & water districts) [note from Guinn: don’t raise Sovereign
Immunity for Hospital district, McClennan Co, school district, City
of Waco, etc…on the exam!!!! they are only exposed by 1983 (not
just “any person” but includes political subdivisions), but they do
not have 11th amend shield!]
6. caselaw — unclear about agencies
7. suits in state court: as long as state has enabling legis.
to give them jx, the state can be sued in state court; then the 11th
am. doesn’t bar SCt from having appellate jx to ensure state ct jj
doesn’t violate federal law.
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