3. Feudal Incidents – duties other than services (tenures) owed by tenants to landlords in Feudal England
a. Homage and Fealty – a ceremony where the tenant pledged loyalty
b. Aids – money demanded by the landlord limited to:
i. Ransoming of the lord by captors
ii. Knighting of landlord’s eldest son
iii. Marriage of landlord’s oldest daughter
c. Forfeiture – Tenant could forfeit his land if he broke his oath (homage)
d. Liabilities at Death of Tenant
i. Wardship and marriage – when a tenant died leaving an heir under 21, the tenant’s lord was the heir’s guardian
1. applied only to the military tenures
ii. Relief – a fee charged by the landlord to release the land and allow it to pass by inheritance
iii. Escheat – if a tenant died without heirs, his land returned to the lord
1. also applied if tenant convicted of felony
2. Modified escheat is still in force today when a person dies intestate without heirs, his property escheats to the state.
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