Justicability (cases and controversies)
1.  Standing
a.  injury (if injunction must show likelihood of harm)
b.  causation/redressability – P must show D caused injury and that                 a verdict will remedy the injury
c.  no 3rd party standing (exception – close relationship)
d.  cannot be a grievance (exception – taxpayers can challenge                     expenditures allegedly violating Establishment Clause)
2.  Ripeness – hardship will be suffered by P w/o judicial review
3.  Mootness – if events after filing end P’s injury
a.  exception – wrong capable of repetition but evading review                     (abortion)
b.  exception – D voluntarily cessates but may restart at any time
c.  exception – in class actions only one class member must still                     have injury regardless of named P
4.  Political Question – fed ct’s will not adjudicate
a.  ex’s – “rebublican form of gov’t, pres’ foreign policy,                         impeachment and removal process