federal jurisdiction:  all cases re:
–    federal question:  the C or federal laws; treaties made under US authority
–    ambassadors, ministers, consuls
–    admiralty
–    US a party; between states; [before 11th am between state and citizen of another state]
–    diversity:  citizens of different states
–  original jx = state is a party, ambassadors, ministers, consuls; everything else = appellate jx
–  trial of crimes by jury