–  general requirements:
1.  case or controversy (no advisory opinions) [to avoid sep or
powers, to explore all aspects of situation & to be final and
actually solve controversy]
2.  not moot
3.  ripe
4.  standing        [must address standing after moot/ripe!!!]
a.  injury in fact [concerete; or 3P standing exception applies]
b.  causation (harm is cause in fact of injury)
c.  likelihood of redressibility
taxpayer standing to attack appropriations:  usually a
generalized grievance & no standing (Frothingham); Flast exception:
logical nexus between taxpayer & claim
a.  1.8 appropriations
b.  tax violates specific C’al limitation on 1.8 tax/spend power
(violates establishment clause)
5.  not a political question:
a.  textually committed to another branch of the gmt (ie impeachment
issues)
b.  no manageable judicial standards to decide the issue.