Gitlow v. New York: Barron v. Baltimore (1833) held that the Bill of Rights (obviously, including the First Am.) only applied to action by the federal government. But Gitlow (1925) changed this, and held that freedom of speech and the press apply to the states because they are “among the fundamental personal rights and ‘liberties’ protected by the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment from impairment by the States.”
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