Held:  President did act within scope of his executive authority.  Note that in this case, the President acted with the express approval of Congress – International Claims Settlement Act of 1949 (see Jackson’s first scenario in Youngstown).  President also acted pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act. (IEEPA)  Congress has continually accepted President’s actions under these Statutes.  “Gloss” established.  The political branches united together to accommodate each other.

Note: This opinion suggests that separation of powers doctrine is an effort to provide legitimacy to “ad hoc political adjustments” resulting from events such as the hostage crisis.