Searches pursuant to a warrant
1.  Requirements for a valid warrant
a.  Probable cause
i.  Use of informers – reliability is determined by the                         totality of the circumstances
ii.  Anonymous informants are ok
b.  Precise on its face – must describe with reasonable precision:
i.  The place to be searched, and
ii.  The items to be seized
c.  Issued by a neutral and detached magistrate
i.  Detached from the competitive business of law                             enforcement
ii.  Court clerks are ok for violations of city ordinances
2.  Exceptions to the warrant requirement – six  (6)
a.  Search incident to a lawful arrest
i.  Requirements
a. Arrest is lawful
b.  Contemporaneous in time and place
c.  Only search the person and their wingspan
i.  Automobiles – if not arresting the officer cannot search                         the automobile, but if arresting he can search the                         auto and all packages
b.  Automobile exception
i.  If police have probable cause to believe that a vehicle                         contains contraband or fruits, instrumentalities, or                         evidence of a crime, the may search the vehicle w/o                         a warrant (may arise before/after stop)
ii.  Scope – entire vehicle (inc. trunk) and any container                         that might contain the object searched for
c.  Plain view – may search if they:
i.  Are legitimately on the premises
ii.  Discover evidence, fruits/instrumentalities of crime or                         contraband
iii.  In plain view, and
iv.  Have probable cause to believe that the item is #ii
d.  Consent
i.  Must be voluntary and intelligent
ii.  Authority to consent – any person with apparent equal                         right to use or occupy may consent (reasonable                         belief by the officer)
iii.  Scope – limited to the scope of consent

e.  Stop and frisk
i.  Same requirements to stop as above
ii.  Additional requirement for frisk
a.  Reasonable belief that the person is armed and                             dangerous
iii.  Scope – limited to a patdown of the outer clothing
iv.  Plain feel – if officer reasonably believes, based on its                         plain feel that an item is a weapon or contraband he                         may reach into the suspect’s clothing and seize it
f.  Hot pursuit and evanescent evidence
i.  There is no general emergency exception
ii.  Hot pursuit – if in hot pursuit of a fleeing FELON the                         officers may make a warrantless search and seizure
iii.  Evanescent evidence – evidence likely to disappear                         before a warrant can be obtained
a.  Ex – blood sample, fingernail scraping